The Federal Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Program is based on both EEO laws, executive orders (EO) and affirmative employment requirements. A synopsis of these laws follows.
Title VII, a section of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, made it illegal for an employer to deny anyone a job because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. Title VII also prohibited discrimination in hiring, termination, promoting, training, setting of wages or salary, and all other privileges of employment. Title VII does not apply, however, to Federal employees at that time.
Equal Pay Act of 1963
The Equal Pay Act of 1963 protects men and women who perform substantially equal work in the same establishment from sex-based wage discrimination.
Executive Order 11246
Executive Order 11246, signed by President Johnson on September 24, 1965, barred discrimination in Federal employment based on race, color, religion, or national origin. This order also provided for nondiscrimination in employment by Government contractors and subcontractors. The Order called for programs on equal opportunity at the agency level under the supervision of the U.S. Civil Service Commission (now known as the U.S. Office of Personnel Management or OPM). It required that the Civil Service Commission issue regulations establishing discrimination complaint procedures for applicants and employees.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 protects individual who are 40 years of age or older.
Executive Order 11478
Executive Order 11478, issued in 1969 by President Nixon, required each department and agency of the Federal Government to establish and maintain an affirmative program of equal employment opportunity for all civilian employees and applicants. This Executive Order gave OPM the authority to guide and oversee EEO programs within Federal departments and agencies.
EEO Act of 1972
Section 717 of the EEO Act of 1972 extended the provision of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to include Federal Employment. Discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, and national origin are now prohibited by law rather than by Executive Order.
Federal agencies are required to submit annual national and regional EEO Affirmative Employment Plans to OPM (now to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) for review and approval.
Section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities and who work in the federal government.
Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 prohibits employment discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities in the private sector, and in state and local governments.
The Civil Rights Act of 1991
The Civil Rights Act of 1991 provides monetary damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination.